. Toto and his team went on to generate a demand for bicycles in the middle class. The middle class is growing rapidly across Southeast Asia and is a difficult group to break into because most can afford cars and rely on them as symbols of social status as well as convenience. Another target group is students: B2W has organized bicycle tours in schools to promote cycling as a means of transport for students and to teach younger generations about the environmental problems facing Indonesia now and in the future. Toto’s B2W community has spread to 31 cities in Indonesia, from Aceh in the Far West to Papua in the Far East, and now has a diverse membership of 11,000 cyclists including workers, CEOs, students, lobbyists, government officials. The movement quickly spread with the help of Toto’s creative public media campaigns and individual motivation. Toto also gained political influence, reaching out to the President of Indonesia to gain local government 꽁머니 for all B2W chapters. B2W’s scaling is underpinned by a commitment to designing new products and supporting the growth of the bicycle business. B2W developed and oversaw the manufacture of affordable bike designs, while bike racks, repair shops and bike leasing companies are springing up across the country.
Jakarta is home to around 11 million people and is known for its poor public transport system and congestion. Rapid population growth in Jakarta has brought more private cars, motorcycles and other vehicles onto the city’s streets, in turn creating ever-increasing smog and air pollution. Inevitably, air pollution from vehicle emissions has reached levels above the safe limits set by the World Health Organization. Official figures indicate that in 2003, the streets of Jakarta were infested with 3.4 million motorcycles, 1.99 million passenger cars, 467,000 trucks and 392,000 buses: the ratio of vehicles per person is almost one to two.
These vehicles represent 68% of total energy consumption.
Air pollution has a significant impact on people’s health, the environment and the economy as healthcare costs increase every year. On average, unfortunately, people only get 18 days of “good air quality” a year, a measure determined by certain levels of chemicals in the air. Data in 2004 cited that 46 percent of all illness cases in Jakarta were respiratory. Jakarta’s limited infrastructure offers few alternatives to driving as a form of transport. With the growth of the middle-class population, bicycles are increasingly considered a second-class means of transport for the poor. In the city of Jakarta alone, more than three million people ride a motorcycle every day for the sake of convenience and avoiding traffic jams. The middle class population tends to use the bicycle just for sport or just as a hobby, as recreation. In addition, hot weather and dangerous traffic conditions become major barriers for many cyclists in the city. A survey conducted in 2005 claimed that only 122 bicycles passed Jakarta’s main road in a day, and most of them were mobile vendors, not passengers. Cyclists are often deprived of adequate infrastructure to travel safely. There are no support facilities available in public places or at the workplace.